This research was supported by grants from the National Science Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, and the NYU Abu Dhabi Institute
Abu Dhabi: A team of researchers has uncovered the distinct computations that occur when we switch between different languages, a finding that provides new insights into the nature of bilingualism.
“A remarkable feature of multilingual individuals is their ability to quickly and accurately switch back and forth between their different languages,” explains Esti Blanco-Elorrieta, a doctoral student in New York University’s Department of Psychology and NYU Abu Dhabi Institute as well as the lead author of the study, which appears in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. “Our findings help pinpoint what occurs in the brain in this process—specifically, what neural activity is exclusively associated with disengaging from one language and then engaging with a new one.”
“Specifically, this research unveils for the first time that while disengaging from one language requires some cognitive effort, activating a new language comes relatively cost-free from a neurobiological standpoint,” notes senior author Liina Pylkkanen, a professor in Liina Pylkkanen, a professor in New York University’s Department of Linguistics and Department of Psychology.
Previous research has linked language switching with increased activity in areas associated with cognitive control (i.e., the prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices). However, it was unknown whether it is disengaging from the previous language or engaging in a new language that drives this activity.
This is largely because these two processes happen simultaneously when those who speak two languages switch from one to the other (i.e., when participants switch from speaking Spanish to speaking English, turning Spanish “off” and turning English “on” happen at the same time).
To untangle this dynamic, the study’s researchers, who also included San Diego State University’s Karen Emmorey, studied bilingual individuals fluent in English and American Sign Language (ASL), who often produce both languages simultaneously.
“The fact that they can do both at the same time offers a unique opportunity to disentangle engagement and disengagement processes—that is, how they turn languages ‘on’ and ‘off’,” observes Blanco-Elorrieta.
Specifically, this meant the researchers could ask the participants to go from producing both languages to producing only one (thus isolating the process of turning a language “off”) or to switch from producing a single language to producing both (thus isolating the process of turning a language “on”).
To capture this process, the scientists observed bilingual signers/speakers who viewed the same pictures and named them with semantically identical expressions. In order to gauge the study subjects’ brain activity during this experiment, the researchers deployed magnetoencephalography (MEG), a technique that maps neural activity by recording magnetic fields generated by the electrical currents produced by our brain.
The results showed that when bilinguals fluent in ASL and English switched languages, turning a language “off” led to increased activity in cognitive control areas while turning a language “on” was no different than not switching.
In other words, the brain’s work was devoted to turning “off” a language, with little to no cognitive effort required in turning “on” a second language—regardless of whether it was spoken or signed language.
In fact, they also found that for such speakers, producing two words simultaneously (one sign and one spoken word) was not necessarily more cognitively costly than producing only one. Rather, producing both at the same time was easier than having to suppress the dominant language (in this case English) in order to name the picture on the screen only in ASL.
“In all, these results suggest that the burden of language-switching lies in disengagement from the previous language as opposed to engaging a new language,” says Blanco-Elorrieta.
This research was supported by grants from the National Science Foundation (BCS-1221723), the National Institutes of Health (R01-DC010997, R01-HD047736), and the New York University Abu Dhabi Institute (G1001) as well as a La Caixa Foundation fellowship for Post-Graduate Studies.
About NYU Abu Dhabi Institute
Established in 2008, the NYU Abu Dhabi Institute is a center of advanced research, scholarly, and creative activity for Abu Dhabi, the UAE, and the world. Its academic conferences serve as a scholarly platform for NYU Abu Dhabi faculty, and faculty across the global network, to discuss and showcase their innovative research and creative activity. Its diverse public program of talks, panel discussions, film screenings, and exhibitions feature scholars, researchers, policy makers, and thought leaders who present topics of local and global significance. From its inception, The Institute has hosted more than 700 academic conferences and public events, and welcomed over 700 speakers from around the world.
About NYU Abu Dhabi
NYU Abu Dhabi is the first comprehensive liberal arts and science campus in the Middle East to be operated abroad by a major American research university. NYU Abu Dhabi has integrated a highly-selective liberal arts, engineering and science curriculum with a world center for advanced research and scholarship enabling its students to succeed in an increasingly interdependent world and advance cooperation and progress on humanity’s shared challenges. NYU Abu Dhabi’s high-achieving students have come from 115 nations and speak over 115 languages. Together, NYU's campuses in New York, Abu Dhabi, and Shanghai form the backbone of a unique global university, giving faculty and students opportunities to experience varied learning environments and immersion in other cultures at one or more of the numerous study-abroad sites NYU maintains on six continents.
© Press Release 2018 /ZAWYA